Life on Mars

There are lots of ways to guesstimate ages, and geologists knew the earth was old a long time ago and I might add that they were mostly Christian creationist geologists. But they didn’t know how old. Radiometric dating actually allows the measurement of absolute ages, and so it is deadly to the argument that the earth cannot be more than 10, years old. Radiometric methods measure the time elapsed since the particular radiometric clock was reset. Radiocarbon dating, which is probably best known in the general public, works only on things that were once alive and are now dead. It measures the time elapsed since death, but is limited in scale to no more than about 50, years ago.

Possible Worlds and Other Essays

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4.

possible worlds and other essays by j. b. s. haldane sir william dunn reader in biochemistry. in the university of cambridge.

Biology G — General Botany Prerequisites: Biology G This course is designed to satisfy the major requirements for an Associate or Baccalaureate degree in the Biological Sciences. Biology G complements Biology G and G as the third of three in a sequence of survey courses. Biology G and Mathematics G or G or G or G or G , or Mathematics Placement Assessment A survey of extant living organisms including physiological and anatomical adaptations of organisms in response to their environment.

Each kingdom is examined, with an emphasis on evolution and ecology of organisms found in kingdoms Plantae and Animalia. Included in this survey is an introduction to scientific methodology including student-centered experimental design, execution, and subsequent analysis of data. Biology G or Biology G This course covers the classification of medications and basic principles of pharmacology from legislation and pharmacokinetics through receptor theory, pharmacodynamics and pharmacotherapeutics.

Medications will be grouped by body systems and treatment options will be related to the pathophysiological state of the patient. Drug groups are discussed rather than individual medications, with emphasis on autonomic, central nervous system, and cardiovascular agents. Drugs affecting all body systems will be discussed.

The Evolution of Early Man

So, how do we know how old a fossil is? There are two main methods determining a fossils age, relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages.

Life on Earth. The existence of diverse definitions of life, as detailed in the previous section, surely means that life is complex and difficult to briefly define. A scientific understanding of living systems has existed since the second half of the 19th century. But the diversity of definitions and lack of consensus among professionals suggest something else as well.

Excavation history and research context[ edit ] Stratigraphy in Blombos Cave Blombos Cave was first excavated in — as a part of Professor Christopher S. Henshilwood’s doctoral thesis. From the initial excavations conducted in the early s, the Blombos Cave project has adopted and established new and innovative research agendas in the study of southern African prehistory. While Henshilwood’s initial, doctoral research was directed towards the more recent Later Stone Age occupation levels, the focus since has been on the Middle Stone Age sequence.

The Blombos Cave project has since then developed academically, economically and administratively, from being a local and small-scale test excavation to becoming an international, full scale, high-technological archaeological project. It was led by Professor Christopher S. From the cave site continues to be excavated by many of the same researchers under the newly funded Centre for Early Sapiens Behaviour SapienCE at the University of Bergen, Norway.

The aim is to follow an even broader multi-disciplinary approach, and the year programme include cognitive studies, neuroscience, geoscience, climate modelling and reconstruction, fauna etc. Site description[ edit ] The cave is situated in a south-facing cliff face The cave formation is set in calcretes of the Wankoe Formation, and the geological setting indicates that the cave was formed by wave action sometime during the Plio-Pleistocene.

West of the cave’s main chamber, anthropogenic deposit extends inwardly meter. In this area, however, the cave ceiling lowers to a point where it falls in level with the surface, preventing access to the deposit beneath. In the area north-east of the main chamber, deposit expands into a low laying ante-chamber of unknown extent due to the sand filling it. By the end of the field season about

what is the difference between direct dating and indirect dating in archaeology

One of the most conspicuous adaptations in early hominins is their mode of locomotion. In fact, the emergence of bipedalism after the human clade separated from the apes, c. Subsequent to the advent of this novel adaptation, the genus Australopithecus became a habitual biped by ca. Yet, the longstanding debate relating to whether Australopithecus had fully abandoned an earlier arboreal life style continues in a polarized fashion.

In this presentation, an attempt will be made to integrate data from fossil and living hominoid morphology and ontogeny and link them to muscle function and observed locomotor adaptation in apes. This approach allows the documentation of character plasticity during ontogeny and how that plasticity relates to observed shifts in mode of locomotion across taxa, providing an interpretive context to explore locomotor adaptation in fossil species.

Lipids can survive long geological intervals within sediments and provide a unique tool that allows the reconstruction of past organismic diversity and environmental conditions.

See Article History Australopithecus, Latin: The various species of Australopithecus lived during the Pliocene 5. As characterized by the fossil evidence, they bore a combination of human- and apelike traits. Like humans, they were bipedal that is, they walked on two legs , but, like apes, they had small brains. Their canine teeth were small like those of humans, but their cheek teeth were large. Artist’s rendering of Australopithecus afarensis, which lived from 3.

Other australopiths include Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7—6 mya , Orrorin tugenensis 6 mya , Ardipithecus kadabba and Ardipithecus ramidus 5. Remains older than 6 million years are widely regarded as those of fossil apes. Undisputed evidence of the genus Homo—the genus that includes modern human beings—does not appear until about 1. The remains of H. To go to an article on a select australopith fossil site, click on a hyperlinked label.

List of unusual words beginning with M

Local warming of the environment by volcanism and impacts would have been sporadic, but there should have been many events of water flowing at the surface of Mars. The exact causes are not well understood but may be related to a combination of processes including loss of early atmosphere, or impact erosion, or both. Part of the liquid water inventory sublimed and was transported to the poles, while the rest became trapped in permafrost , a subsurface ice layer. If it did, it was probably microbial , existing communally in fluids or on sediments, either free-living or as biofilms , respectively.

The permafrost layer on Mars is only a couple of centimeters below the surface, and salty brines can be liquid a few centimeters below that but not far down.

to date fossils outside the range of carbon dating, researchers use indirect methods of establishing absolute fossil age. what are two of them? potassium and magnetism shifts researchers might measure the amount in each rock layer of the radioactive isotope potassium, which has a half-life of billion years. it allows you to date back further but it is not precise.

These radioactive isotopes are unstable, decaying over time at a predictable rate. As the isotopes decay, they give off particles from their nucleus and become a different isotope. The parent isotope is the original unstable isotope, and daughter isotopes are the stable product of the decay. Half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of the parent isotopes to decay.

The decay occurs on a logarithmic scale. For example, the half-life of C is 5, years. In the first 5, years, the organism will lose half of its C isotopes. In another 5, years, the organism will lose another half of the remaining C isotopes. This process continues over time, with the organism losing half of the remaining C isotopes each 5, years. Radioactive Dating of Fossils Fossils are collected along with rocks that occur from the same strata.


The lithostratigraphy of the latest Triassic to earliest Cretaceous of the English Channel and its adjacent areas. Published by the Geological Society of London. It is a substantial paper 61 pages long with 26 diagrams. It is very good with much information, including facies and thickness maps, diagrams showing sea-level changes etc. It is easily readable by anyone who already knows the general geological succession and zonal schemes of the Dorset Coast.

Ainsworth, William Braham, F.

Mar 15,  · Indirect dating is something like stratigraphic dating where you date the strata above and below the object or artifact and get a timeframe that you can place the object in. Source(s): Archaeology class 3 years : Resolved.

Can you observe evolution happening? Because for many species, humans included, evolution happens over the course of many thousands of years, it is rare to observe the process in a human lifetime. Usually only laboratory scientists studying quickly reproducing life forms, like single-celled creatures and some invertebrates, have the opportunity to see evolutionary change happen before their eyes. All of us can and do experience the indirect effects of evolution nearly every day, however.

One of the more important evolutionary concerns facing humans today is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes. A battle against bacteria that we have been winning with medicine for the last 50 years or so is now an even race, according to some scientists — because of the rapid rate of bacterial evolution. Similarly, the use of pesticides in agriculture has driven the evolution of resistant insects that require more or harsher chemicals to be killed.

How Is Radioactive Dating Used to Date Fossils

Introduction Evolution itself is simply the process of change over time. When applied to biology, evolution generally refers to changes in life forms over time. The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.

Darwin was not, however, the first person to propose an evolutionary explanation for the diversity of life on earth. In fact, evolutionary concepts about life date far back into history and arose in many different cultures.

I hope you have found this site to be useful. If you have any corrections, additions, or comments, please contact note that I am not able to respond to all requests.

Australopithecus africanus — The word “Australopithecus” means “southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of anatomy at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils. In at Taung in South Africa, Dart discovered a fossil skull consisting of a full face, teeth and jaws, and an endocranial cast of the brain. The brain size was cc.

Its age is currently felt to be around two to three million years old. Dart was convinced that some teeth were man-like and thus concluded a transition between apes and man. His opinions on the matter of this particular skull were largely scorned by the scientists of this time who considered it nothing more than a young chimpanzee now considered to be about three years of age. The skull was soon known derisively as “Dart’s baby.


Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.

If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.

Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.

I. University of the State of New York. Board of Regents and the Development of the Regents of the University of the State of New York were created by statute May 1,

What does it mean for a something to be intelligent? For instance, it could perceive its environment using sensors, eyes, etc. Much problem solving can be done intelligently with mathematical techniques, none of which require awareness. Definitions intelligence — ability to perceives its environment, and take actions to maximize its chances of success. The ability to act with good judgement. Also known as prudence or wisdom.

The ability to confront fear, uncertainty, and intimidation. However, as machines become increasingly capable, facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition. Some AI problems have successfully been solved! Go is an abstract strategy board game. The aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. For instance I uploaded ten years of photos to Google. Personal assistants on your phone or PC, that listen to your questions, offer meaningful answers, and help you schedule your life: Like Siri, from Microsoft Google Now:

Relative/Absolute Dating

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